Stephen Krashen www.sdkrashen.com twitter: skrashen NTPRS, July 20, 2015
CONTRIBUTIONS OF TPRS
1. Compelling comprehensible input: a history of compelling CI
2. Pop-up grammar: functions of learned grammar = monitor, make input more comprehensible, appreciation.
a. using conscious learning to solve real-world problems
3. Books for FVR
1. The urge for transparency
2. The cure: theory and compelling CI
3. Targeted grammar and vocabulary
a. problems w. targeting: natural order, contrains interest, review, misses lots of grammar, denial of i+1
b. Nontargeted input: contains i+1, easier to make input compelling, natural review, all rules eventually included.
c. Institutional demands. Cure: share existing research, determine rules acquired from pure CI.
d. Writing and Timed Writing: valid, but "washback" effect – can increase confidence in acq
Should we practice writing at all? Doesn't writing make you smarter?> don't require it.
4. Output: forbidden? No. Not forced
a. speaking helps indirectly: invites CI
b. comprehensible output? Rare in the real world, acquisition without production
c. when output doesn't emerge: language shyness
5. Circling: Are we just doing ALM (audio-lingual method)?
a. yes, at its worst: targeted structure, as "practice," forced output
b. at best: confirms comprehension, moves the storu
NEW FRONTIERS: language classes – fewer constraints on subject matter
1. Expanding TPR: exercises, especially yoga instruction, self-defense, dance, magic tricks, juggling, cooking
2. Sheltered subject matter teaching: courses or modules
a. music: performance, theory, appreciation
b. Popular literature.
c. Second language acquisition research and theory, linguistics
1. What do we do when students have different first languages? As TPRS spreads to second language ...
a. Use of L1 very helpful when L2 and L1 do not share cognates
b. Other ways: visual contex - pictures, films, real objects, movements of the body (TPR) & linguistic contex.
c. Is context "misleading"?
(1) acquisition is gradual. (5-10% each encounter: Nagy, W. et al, 1985.
(2) Most contexts are helpful: 61% helpful, 8% misdirective – Beck et al, 1983.
2. The potential of technology – use most obvious and inexpensive, not costly and unsupported by evidence: reading, eg ESLPod.com, our own sharing; movietalk ; bogus applications
References: (all Krashen articles at www.sdkrashen.com, "language acquisition"
Beck, I., McKeown, M. and McCaslin, E. 1983. Vocabulary development: Not all contexts are created equal. Elementary School
Journal 83: 177-181.
Krashen, S. 1998. Comprehensible output? System 26: 175-182.
Krashen, S. 1998. Language shyness and heritage language development. In S. Krashen, L. Tse, and J. McQuillan (Eds.) Heritage Language Development. Culver City: Language Education Associates. pp. 41-49.
Krashen, S. 2013. Rosetta Stone: Does not provide compelling input, research reports at best suggestive, conflicting reports on users’ attitudes. International Journal of Foreign language Teaching, 8:1
Krashen, S. 2013. The effect of direct instruction on pronunciation: Only evident when conditions for Monitor use are met? GiST: Education and Learning Research Journal 7: 271-275.
Krashen, S. 2014. Does Duolingo "trump" university-level language learning? International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 9(1):13-15.
Nagy, W., Herman, P., and Anderson, R. 1985. Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly 17: 233-255.