Tuesday, September 5, 2017

Don't allow Mandarin to become a "killer language."


Comment on "Can Putonghua Relieve Poverty?"  (Published in Language Magazine, December 2017, vol 17, 4. page 8).

Original article: https://www.languagemagazine.com/2017/08/can-putonghua-relieve-poverty/#comment-546481)

Stephen Krashen

Mandarinization of China, and other countries speaking Chinese languages, has clear advantages, but it should not result in the death of local languages. There are many advantages in maintaining and even promoting "heritage" languages and there are no disadvantages:  it promotes bilingualism, which has positive effects on cogntive development (one I am particularly interested in is that it delays dementia),  has economic advantages, promoting business activity in the larger regions as well as locally, and gives the younger generation access to the wisdom of their elders. 
Use of the home language in school makes acquisition of the second language (Mandarin in this case) much  easier. It is easier to develop literacy in a language you already understand, and once you can read in any language, it transfers across languages. Also, subject matter knowledge learned in the first language will make instruction in the second language more comprehensible. This has been confirmed in many studies.
China should not allow Mandarin to become a "killer language," eliminating local languages.  This has happened in Singapore: the push for Mandarin has resulted in a huge reduction in the use of Hakaan, Cantonese and other Chinese languages in homes.  Fortunately, other Chinese languages seem to be making a come-back in Singapore as people realize the benefits: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/26/world/asia/singapore-language-hokkien-mandarin.html?mcubz=3


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    You Will Hear From Us. Well Nice To Meet You And I look forward to our Business Acquaintance. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    Do You Need A Loan To Consolidate Your Debt At 1.0%? Or A Personal Loans * Business Loans etc. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    ReplyDelete
  32. Are you a business man or woman? Are you in any financial mess or Do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need a loan to start a nice Small Scale and medium business? Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital loan from local banks and other financial institutes?. Interested applicants should Contact us via email: PergoCF@cheerful.com ( PergoCF@qualityservice.com ) PergoCF@gmail.com

    Our loans are well insured for maximum security is our priority, Our leading goal is to help you get the services you deserve, Our program is the quickest way to get what you need in a snap. Reduce your payments to ease the strain on your monthly expenses. Gain flexibility with which you can use for any purpose from vacations, to education, to unique purchases. Interested applicants should Contact us via email: PergoCF@cheerful.com ( PergoCF@qualityservice.com ) PergoCF@gmail.com

    We offer a wide range of financial services which includes: Business Planning, Commercial and Development Finance, Properties and Mortgages, Debt Consolidation Loans, Business Loans, Private loans, Home Refinancing Loans with low interest rate at 1.00% per annul for individuals, companies and corporate bodies. Get the best for your family and own your dream home as well with our General Loan scheme. Interested applicants should Contact us via email: PergoCF@cheerful.com ( PergoCF@qualityservice.com ) PergoCF@gmail.com

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    Kindly write us back with the loan information;
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    If you are interested to get a loan then kindly write us with the loan requirement. Please, contact us for more information: PergoCF@qualityservice.com ( PergoCF@gmail.com ) PergoCF@cheerful.com

    Yours Sincerely,
    Mr. Ren Hya
    PergoCF@qualityservice.com ( PergoCF@gmail.com ) PergoCF@cheerful.com
    We look forward to hear from you ASAP
    Interested applicants should Contact us via email: PergoCF@qualityservice.com ( PergoCF@gmail.com ) PergoCF@cheerful.com

    ReplyDelete
  33. Get rich today and take the risk of transforming your own life.Try and get an ATM card blank today (CLIFFORD JACKSON) of cliffordhackerspays@­gmail.­com and be among the lucky ones who are benefiting from this card. This ATM card in white set is capable of hacking into any ATM anywhere in the world. I have to know about this ATM card when I was looking for work online about a month ago..It has really changed my life forever and now I can say I'm rich because I am a living testimony. The less money I get in a day with this card is $ 8,000.Every now and then keep pumping money into my account. Although illegal, there is no risk of being caught, as it is programmed so that it can not track, but also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you..For details on how to get yours today, email hackers: cliffordhackerspays@­gmail.­com

    ReplyDelete
  34. We are able to finance your signatory
    projects and help you enhance your
    business plan. Furthermore, our
    financial instrument can be used for
    the purchase of goods from any
    manufacturer irrespective of their
    location. It can also serve as
    collateral with any bank in the world
    to secure loans for your project or to
    activate credit line to finance your
    business plan. We have {BG}, Standby
    Letter of Credit {SBLC}, Medium Term
    Notes {MTN}, Confirmable Bank Draft
    {CBD} as well as other financial
    instruments issued from AAA Rated bank
    such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank
    London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt,
    Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank
    and others on lease at the lowest
    available rates depending on the face
    value of the instrument needed.


    Email : nat.mandate18@gmail.com
    Skype : nat.mandate18@gmail.com


    Regards
    Nat

    ReplyDelete
  35. We are Ireland based major/Direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC, POF, MTN, Bonds and CDs and this financial instruments are specifically for lease and sale.We are one of the leading Financial instrument providers with offices all over Europe.
    we always deliver on time and precision as Set forth in the agreement. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs, project financing, Credit line enhancement, Corporate Loans (Business Start-up Loans or Business Expansion Loans), Equipment Procurement Loans (Industrial Equipment, Air crafts, Ships, etc.) as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed, Our Terms and Conditions are reasonable.
    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:
    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG)/SBLC (Appendix A)
    2. Total Face Value: 10M MIN to 50B MAX USD or Euro
    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC, Deutsche Bank Frankfurt, UBS or any Top 25 .
    4. Age: One Year, One Day
    5. Leasing Price: 4+ 2%
    6. Sale Price: 32+2%
    7. Delivery by SWIFT .
    8. Payment: MT103-23
    9. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.
    If you have need for Corporate loans, International project funding, etc. or if you have a client that requires funding for his project or business, We are also affiliated with lenders who specialize on funding against financial instruments, such as BG, SBLC, POF or MTN, we fund 100% of the face value of the financial instrument.
    Inquiries from agents/ brokers/ intermediaries are also welcomed; do get back to us if you are interested in any of our services and for quality service.
    Name:Fachtna O'Mahony
    E-mail:paciolifinancialservicesltd@gmail.com
    Skype id:paciolifinancialservicesltd@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  36. I am seeking a loan in the amount of € 30,000.00 in an effort to consolidate all outstanding debt into one payment. I am trying to

    clear existing debt thus helping to increase my credit score. I have ran into numerous financial difficulties and have not had to

    ability to rectify certain situations of my own volition. My father and grandmother both dies unexpectedly, and both uninsured which

    placed a huge financial strain itself. I am also recently divorced and unfortunately have a lot of debt that has been obtained as a

    result of that union. I was searching for an organization that will give me a second chance to correct these blunders, thus allowing

    me to move in the right direction before i came across a testimony woman who was also scammed and eventually got linked to a legit

    loan company called Info Cash Company and email ( info.cashcraft84@gmail.com ) where she finally got her loan, so i decided to contact

    the same loan company and then told them my story on how i have been scammed by 2 different lenders who did nothing but to course me

    more pain. I explain to the company by mail and all they told me was to cry no more because i will get my loan in their company and

    also i have made the right choice of contacting them. i filled the loan application form and proceeded with all that was requested of

    me and to my shock I was given a loan amount of $30,000.00 Dollars by this great Company (Info Cash Craft} managed by My Thomas

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    keep testifying on the Internet on how i got my loan. Do you need a loan urgently? kindly and quickly contact This great company now

    for your loan via email: info.cashcraft84@gmail.com
    Thank you.
    Betty

    ReplyDelete
  37. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $50,000 daily for a maximum of 20 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $100,000. MRS MARY is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and she is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. get yours from her. Just send her an email On atmmachine443@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  38. Do you need funding assistance for personal or business purposes? We presently have overtures for small business loans, commercial loans, construction loans, real estate financing, auto loans, personal loans, home equity loan e.t.c simply contact us today via Email: Elijahloanfirm@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  39. We Offers Financial Consulting To Client, Companies Seeking Debt / Loan Financing And Seeking For Working Capital To Start A New Business Or To Expand Existing Business. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    We Have Loan Programs Tailored For Any Profile And You've Come To The Right Place To Satisfy Your Business Needs. If Your Company Or You Know Of Any Company With Viable Projects / Proposals That Needs Financing, Kindly Write Us With The Loan Requirement. Please, Contact Us For More Information: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    You Will Hear From Us. Well Nice To Meet You And I look forward to our Business Acquaintance. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    Do You Need A Loan To Consolidate Your Debt At 1.0%? Or A Personal Loans * Business Loans etc. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    We Offers Financial Consulting To Client, Companies Seeking Debt / Loan Financing And Seeking For Working Capital To Start A New Business Or To Expand Existing Business. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    Kindly write us back with the loan information;
    - Complete Name:
    - Loan amount needed:
    - Loan Duration:
    - Purpose of loan:
    - City / Country:
    - Telephone:
    - How Did You Hear About Us:

    Do You Need A Loan To Consolidate Your Debt At 1.0%? Or A Personal Loans * Business Loans etc. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    We Offers Financial Consulting To Client, Companies Seeking Debt / Loan Financing And Seeking For Working Capital To Start A New Business Or To Expand Existing Business. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    ReplyDelete

  40. I am a mandate to a Finance and Investment Company who is a premier provider of trade finance and project finance instruments as well as discountable bank instruments. We offer Genuine Bank Guarantees, Standby Letter of Credit, Pre Advice / RWA Messages, Documentary Letters of Credit, Bank Draft, Proof of Funds, Performance Bond, Medium Term Notes, and various SWIFT messaging services on lease and sale. We issue these instruments from prime banks, secondary banks, and financial institutions; and transmit SWIFT MT 760, MT 799, MT199, MT999 and other messages on behalf of our clients.

    We offer certifiable and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable of taking up time bound transactions. Kindly contact for genuine inquiries and I can provide you with the needed information.


    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M-20B
    LEASING FEE = 4% 2%

    FOR PURCHASE OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M-20B
    PURCHASING PRICE = 32% 2%

    Michael David.
    Contact Mail : riversfinancegroupplc@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  41. We are authorized Financial consulting firm that work directly with
    A rated banks eg Lloyds Bank,Barclays Bank,hsbc bank etc

    We provide BG, SBLC, LC, LOAN and lots more for client all over the world.

    Equally,we are ready to work with Brokers and financial
    consultants/consulting firms in their respective countries.

    We are equally ready to pay commission to those Brokers and financial
    consultants/consulting firms.

    Awaiting a favourable response from you.

    Best regards
    WALSH SMITH, ROBERT
    email : info.iqfinanceplc@gmail.com
    skype: cpt_young1

    ReplyDelete
  42. We are authorized Financial consulting firm that work directly with
    A rated banks eg Lloyds Bank,Barclays Bank,hsbc bank etc

    We provide BG, SBLC, LC, LOAN and lots more for client all over the world.

    Our procedures are most reasonable and safest as dealings are done bank to bank immediately after DOA is countersigned keeping you our client guaranteed of safety 100%.

    Equally,we are ready to work and pay commission to Brokers and financial
    consultants/consulting firms in their respective countries.

    Awaiting a favourable response from you.

    Regards
    WALSH SMITH, ROBERT
    email : info.iqfinanceplc@gmail.com
    skype: cpt_young1

    ReplyDelete
  43. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $50,000 daily for a maximum of 20 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $100,000. MRS MARY is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and she is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. get yours from her. Just send her an email On atmmachine443@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  44. We Offers Financial Consulting To Client, Companies Seeking Debt / Loan Financing And Seeking For Working Capital To Start A New Business Or To Expand Existing Business. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

    ReplyDelete
  45. Are You A Business Man Or Woman? Are You In Any Financial Mess Or Do You Need Funds To Start Up Your Own Business? Do You Need A Loan To Start A Nice Small Scale And Medium Business? Do You Have A Low Credit Score And You Are Finding It Hard To Obtain Capital Loan From Local Banks And Other Financial Institutes?. - Intermediaries / Consultants / Brokers Are Welcome To Bring Their Clients And Are 100% Protected. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: CYSCredits@Post.com ( CYSCredits@Asia.com )

    We Like To Inform You That Our Main Goals Are To Help Companies And Entrepreneurs Raise Their Business To New Heights By Investing, Consulting And Raising Capital Without Bank Lending. We Are Qualified In All Aspects Of Financing, Banks And Asset Based Lending. We Have The Ability To Handle All Aspects Of The Financial Needs And Challenges Of Our Clients, Including; Real Estate Investment And Any Other Large Variety Of Sectors That Need Financing. - Intermediaries / Consultants / Brokers Are Welcome To Bring Their Clients And Are 100% Protected. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: CYSCredits@Post.com ( CYSCredits@Asia.com )

    WE OFFER ALL KIND OF LOANS - APPLY FOR AFFORDABLE LOANS.

    Do You Need A Loan To Consolidate Your Debt At 1.0%? Or A Personal Loans * Business Loans etc. - Intermediaries / Consultants / Brokers Are Welcome To Bring Their Clients And Are 100% Protected. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: CYSCredits@Post.com ( CYSCredits@Asia.com )

    - Complete Name:
    - Loan amount needed:
    - Loan Duration:
    - Purpose of loan:
    - City / Country:
    - Telephone:
    - How Did You Hear About Us:

    Do You Need A Loan To Consolidate Your Debt At 1.0%? Or A Personal Loans * Business Loans etc. We Offers Financial Consulting To Client, Companies Seeking Debt / Loan Financing And Seeking For Working Capital To Start A New Business Or To Expand Existing Business. Intermediaries / Consultants / Brokers Are Welcome To Bring Their Clients And Are 100% Protected. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via E-mail: CYSCredits@Post.com ( CYSCredits@Asia.com )

    ReplyDelete