Below is a list of studies comparing
comprehension-based methods with traditional methods that demand the conscious
learning of grammar. The list includes studies contrasting comprehension-based
methods with traditional methods for beginning foreign language teaching and
intermediate foreign and second language teaching, as well as studies showing
the superiority of self-selected reading over traditional instruction for
intermediate second and foreign language students.
All studies included comparison
groups and subjects were high school age or older. In addition, there are a multitude of studies
that confirm these results using multivariate techniques and case histories
Krashen, S. 2004. Explorations in
Language Acquisition and Use. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE: COMPREHENSION BASED METHODS
Asher, J. 1965. The strategy of the total physical
response: an application to learning Russian. International Review of Applied
Linguistics 3: 291-300.
Asher, J. 1969. The total physical response approach
to second language learning. Modern
Language Journal 53:
Asher, J. 1972. Children's first language as a model
for second language learning. Modern
Language Journal 56:
Asher, J., Kusudo, J. and De La Torre, R. 1974,
Learning a second language through commands: the second field test. Modern Language Journal 58: 24-32.
J. 2012. A comparison of TPRS and traditional instruction, both with SSR.
International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 7(2): 4-6.
Hammond, R. 1989. Accuracy versus communicative
competency: The acquisition of grammar in the second language classroom.
Hispania 71: 408-417
Isik, A. 2000. The role of input in second language
acquisition: more comprehensible input supported by grammar instrution or more
grammar instruction? ITL: Review of Applied Linguistics 129-130: 225-74.
Kunihara A, S. and Asher, J. 1965. The strategy of the
total physical response: an application to learning Japanese. International Review of Applied Linguistics 4: 277-289.
N. 1989. Experimenting with the new methods in Arabic. Dialog on Language
Instruction. 6: 61-71.
Swaffer, J. and Woodruff, M. 1978. Language for
comprehension: Focus on reading. Modern Language Journal 6:27-32.
Varguez, K. 2009. Traditional and TPR
Storytelling instruction in the Beginning High School Spanish Classroom.
International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 5 (1): 2-11.
B. 2009. A comparison of TPRS and traditional foreign language instruction at
the high school level. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 5
Winitz, H. 1996. Grammaticality judgments
as a function explitict and implicit instruction in Spanish. Modern Language
Journal 80 (1): 32-46.
Wolfe, D. and Jones, G. 1982. Integrating total
physical response strategy in a level 1 Spanish class. Foreign Language Annals
Burger, S. 1989. Content-based ESL in a sheletered
psychology course: Input, output, and outcomes. TESL Canada Journal 6:45-59.
H., Wesche, M., Krashen, S., Clement, R., and Kruidenier, B. 1984. Second
language acquisition through a subject-matter learning: A study of sheltered
psychology classes at the University of Ottawa. Canadian Modern Language Review
P., Wesche, M., and Ready, D. 1988. Second language acquisition through
subject-matter teaching: a follow-up study at the University of Ottawa.
Language Learning 38: 433-71.
R. and Buscaglia, M. 1985. Students learn language via a civilization course –
a comarison of second language acquisition environments. Studies in Second
Language Acquisition 7: 323-42.
S. 1993. Immersion in first-year language instruction for adults. In J. Oller
(Ed.) Methods That Work. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE: SUSTAINED SILENT READING
T. 2001. Extensive reading: Speed and comperhension. The Reading Matrix, 1 (1)
Hafiz, F., and I. Tudor. 1990. Graded readers as an
input medium in L2 learning. System 18(1): 31-42.
Lao, C.Y. and Krashen, S. 2000. The impact of popular
literature study on literacy development in EFL: More evidence for the power of
reading. System 28: 261-270.
Lee, S.Y. 2007. Revelations from three consecutive
studies on extensive reading. RELC Journal
38 (2), 150-170.
Lee, S. Y. and Hsu, Y. Y. 2009.
A three-year longitudinal study of in-class sustained silent reading
with Taiwanese vocational college students. Indonesian Journal of English
Language Teaching, 5(1): 15-29.
Lituanas, P. M., Jacobs, G. M., and Renandya, W. A.
1999. A study of extensive reading with remedial reading students. In Y. M.
Cheah & S. M. Ng (Eds.) Language instructional issues in Asian classrooms
(pp. 89-104). Newark, DE: International Development in Asia Committee,
International Reading Association.
Liu, C.K. 2007. A reading program that keeps winning. Selected
Papers from the Sixteenth International Symposium on English Teaching, English
Teachers’ Association – Republic of China. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.
Mason, B. 2006. Free voluntary reading and autonomy in second
language acquisition: Improving TOEFL scores from reading alone. International
Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 2(1), 2-5.
Mason, B. and Krashen, S. 1997. Extensive reading in
English as a foreign language. System 25: 91-102.
T. N. & Susser, B. 1989. Extensive reading vs skills building in an EFL Context.
Reading in a Foreign Language, 5, 2, 239-51.
Rodrigo, V., Krashen, S., and Gribbons, B. 2004. The effectiveness
of two comprehensible-input approaches to foreign language instruction at the
intermediate level. System 32(1): 53-60.
Sheu, S. P-H. 2004. Extensive reading with EFL
learners at beginning level. TESL Reporter, 36(2), 8-26.
Sims, J. 1996. A new perspective: Extensive reading
for pleasure. The Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on English
Teaching, pp. 137-144. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.
Smith, K. 2006. A comparison of “pure” extensive
reading with intensive reading and Extensive Reading with Supplementary
Activities. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching (IJFLT), 2(2):
2007. The effect of adding SSR to regular instruction. Selected Papers from the
Sixteenth International Symposium on English Teaching, English Teachers’
Association – Republic of China. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.
Smith, K. 2011. Integrating one hour of in-school weekly SSR:
Effects on proficiency and spelling. International Journal of Foreign Language
Teaching, 7(1): 1-7.
Tudor, I., and Hafiz, F. 1989. Extensive reading as a
means of input to L2 learning. Journal of Research in Reading 12(2): 164-178.
Tsang, W-K., 1996. Comparing the effects of reading
and writing on writing performance. Applied Linguistics 17(2): 210-233.
Yuan, Y. P., and Nash, T. 1992. Reading subskills and
quantity reading. Selected papers from The Eighth Conference on English
Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China, pp. 291-304. Taipei: Crane.