Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Given rich interesting input, I+1 is present

If we supply a great deal of rich & interesting comprehensible input, i+1 is automatically present.  

Teaching in the Zone (August 2017).
Published in Language Magazine, October, 2017.
Sara Davila defines "i+1" as a task just above the acquirer's current level of understanding, introduced "to provide a challenge."  
I defined "i+1" in terms of the natural order of acqiuisiton: i+1 is the next structure(s) the acquirer is ready to acquire.
In my original statements and in a more recent paper,  I presented evidence for the hypothesis that we need not, and should not, aim at i+1.  If we supply a great deal of rich and interesting comprehensible input, i+1 is automatically present.  We don't have to "target just the right spot" for optimal acquisition.  Please see Krashen, S. 2013 The Case for Non-Targeted, Comprehensible Input. Journal of Bilingual Education Research & Instruction 15(1): 102-110, available (Free download) at:http://www.sdkrashen.com/articles.php?cat=6 (scroll down).  
For a more recent view of "targeting,"  and when it might be useful, please see: http://skrashen.blogspot.com/2016/11/three-options-non-targeted-input-and.html.

Stephen Krashen


  1. The best way to provide comprehesable input is by narrating a Charlie Chaplin movie. The complete story line is comprehenable throught the silent movie alone. The teacher is then free to speak at the general level of the students. Even if a student only understands 25% of what the teacher says, he will still understand 100% of the movie, and he will not be frustrated or bored.
    The best movies are "the Kid", "Modern Times", "The Circus", "The Imigrant"

  2. In the case of Movie Talk ( a teacher narrating a movie) students don't need to pay attention to the teacher in order to enjoy the silent movie. Therefore the teacher may be perceived as something distracting or annoying for some students. When I watch an interesting movie I don't like that another person speaks or explains the movie to me. I believe that Krashen means something different when he qualifies CI as "compelling".

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