Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Given rich interesting input, I+1 is present

If we supply a great deal of rich & interesting comprehensible input, i+1 is automatically present.  

Teaching in the Zone (August 2017).
Published in Language Magazine, October, 2017.
Sara Davila defines "i+1" as a task just above the acquirer's current level of understanding, introduced "to provide a challenge."  
I defined "i+1" in terms of the natural order of acqiuisiton: i+1 is the next structure(s) the acquirer is ready to acquire.
In my original statements and in a more recent paper,  I presented evidence for the hypothesis that we need not, and should not, aim at i+1.  If we supply a great deal of rich and interesting comprehensible input, i+1 is automatically present.  We don't have to "target just the right spot" for optimal acquisition.  Please see Krashen, S. 2013 The Case for Non-Targeted, Comprehensible Input. Journal of Bilingual Education Research & Instruction 15(1): 102-110, available (Free download) at:http://www.sdkrashen.com/articles.php?cat=6 (scroll down).  
For a more recent view of "targeting,"  and when it might be useful, please see: http://skrashen.blogspot.com/2016/11/three-options-non-targeted-input-and.html.

Stephen Krashen


  1. The best way to provide comprehesable input is by narrating a Charlie Chaplin movie. The complete story line is comprehenable throught the silent movie alone. The teacher is then free to speak at the general level of the students. Even if a student only understands 25% of what the teacher says, he will still understand 100% of the movie, and he will not be frustrated or bored.
    The best movies are "the Kid", "Modern Times", "The Circus", "The Imigrant"

  2. In the case of Movie Talk ( a teacher narrating a movie) students don't need to pay attention to the teacher in order to enjoy the silent movie. Therefore the teacher may be perceived as something distracting or annoying for some students. When I watch an interesting movie I don't like that another person speaks or explains the movie to me. I believe that Krashen means something different when he qualifies CI as "compelling".

  3. I`m Charlie Bean. I needed a loan to buy a house and I searched for a mortgage loan from all banks and I was denied and I loss hope of having my own house until I came across a post just as you reading my post now. I saw a post about a Financial Service Company who gives loan at 2% interest so I applied in STEAKLEY FINANCIAL SERVICES using their email steakleyfinancialservices@yahoo.com. And my loan was granted it was like a dream but was true and now am a owner of a house in Toronto and am paying the mortgage loan with no stress and I also requested if I can be granted a business loan and I was also granted. Now am living a happy life, I will advice you if you have an financial problems and you need money to settle it so you can pay with no stress just contact Steakley Financial Service at their email Steakleyfinancialservices@yahoo.com or number +1(512) 714-8010.

  4. Are you looking for financing source such as Bank Guarantee (BG) and Standby Letter Of Credit (SBLC)?
    I am a direct mandate to a Financial Institution who is also known as private lender specialized in the Lease of Bank / Financial Instruments in the form of Bank Guarantees (BG), Standby Letter of Credit (SBLC), Documentary Letter of Credit (DLC), Letter of Credit (LC), Performance Bonds (PB);
    Whether you are new starting up, medium or large establishment that needs a financial solution to fund/get your project started or an established business looking for extra CAPITAL to expand your operations, our company renders all the credible and trusted bank guarantee providers who are willing to fund and give financing solutions that suits your specific business needs.

    We help/assist you secure SBLC and bank guarantee (BG) for your trade and investment from world ranked Banks such as; HSBC, Barclays Deutsche Bank Frankfurt, and Any A rated Bank in Europe e.t.c


    (1) Instrument: Bank Guarantee {BG} /StandBy Letter of Credit.{SBLC} (Appendix A).

    (2) Total Face Value: Eur/USD 1M{Minimum} to Eur/USD 10B{Maximum}.

    (3) Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Barclays Bank and Deutsche Bank Frankfurt.

    (4) Age: One Year and One Day.

    (5) Leasing Price: 4% of Face Value plus 2% commission.

    (6) Delivery: bank to bank SWIFT MT-799 and/or MT-760.

    (7) Payment: MT103 (TT/WT).

    (8) Hard Copy: Bonded Courier Service.

    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    We will be glad to share our working procedures with you upon request to help us proceed towards closing deals effectively.

    For further inquiry contact
    Email : Saban.financialbg@gmail.com
    Skype : Saban.financialbg