Wednesday, September 7, 2016

I do not support H.R. 4481, The "Education for All Act."

Stephen Krashen    September, 2016

H.R. 4481, the "Education for All Act" has been introduced in the US House of Representatives. The description:  "To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to provide assistance for developing countries to promote quality basic education and to establish the goal of all children in school and learning as an objective of the United States foreign assistance policy, and for other purposes."

Despite 4481's noble goals, I do not support it: 4481 appears to be supporting an approach for other countries that has not worked in the US.

The Premise

HR 4481 assumes education is the driving force behind economic growth, reduction of poverty and inequality.  There is another point of view, clearly expressed by Martin Luther King (1967): "We are likely to find that the problems of housing and education, instead of preceding the elimination of poverty, will themselves be affected if poverty is first abolished."

The causality is not "improve education and it will reduce poverty and improve the economy," but rather "reduce poverty, and this will result in improved educational achievement."

There is strong evidence that Dr. King was right. Research done with countries, states, and individuals consistently shows that high levels of poverty are associated with low school achievement. There are good reasons for this: Among other things, poverty means food deprivation, lack of health care and lack of access to books, all of which have devastating impacts on school performance.  The best teaching in the world will have little effect if students are hungry, ill, and have little or nothing to read. 

There is also consistent evidence that when children of poverty are provided with improved nutrition, health care, and access to books, school performance improves.

"Rigorous" monitoring and evaluation

4481 calls for "rigorous" monitoring and evaluation, not just in school subjects but also in "critical thinking and civic education."  This will cost billions in terms of test development, piloting, and research, especially in areas where evaluation has not been well investigated (critical thinking and civic education). The tests will be have to constantly revised, and the technological demands will be enormous, with expensive new technology added as computer science makes more "progress."  The US has followed this path with no significant improvement in achievement, a result that is no surprise to those who have read the research. The only winners have been the testing companies.

Rather than spend billions on testing, we should invest in protecting children from the effects of poverty.

For the amount of money HR 4481 is prepared to spend on evaluation, children all over the world can be significantly better fed, have better health care, and improved school libraries, which will improve school performance and improve the quality of life for millions.


'… the problems of housing and education…:": King, ML,1967. Final Words of Advice.
...high levels of poverty are associated with low school achievement: White, K. 1982. The relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. Psychological Bulletin 91(46), 461-81; Tienken, C.  2014. Poverty and test performance. Kappa Delta Pi Record 50: 106-108.
…poverty means: Berliner, D. 2009. Poverty and Potential: Out-of-School Factors and School Success. Boulder and Tempe: Education and the Public Interest Center & Education Policy Research Unit. http://; Krashen, S. 1997. Bridging inequity with books. Educational Leadership  55(4): 18-22.
... school performance improves: FRAC, 2014. Breakfast for Learning. Food Research and Action Center; Healthy Schools Campaign, 2014; Research Shows Full-time School Nurses Improve Student Health and Learning; Lance, K. 2004. The impact of school library media centers on academic achievement. In Carol Kuhlthau (Ed.), School Library Media Annual. 188-197. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. (For access to the many Lance studies done in individual states, as well as studies done by others at the state level, see; Krashen, S., Lee, S.Y. and McQuillan, J. 2012. Is the library important? Multivariate studies at the national and international level. Journal of Language and Literacy Education, 8(1): 26-36.)
.... no surprise ....:: Nichols, S., Glass, G., and Berliner, D. 2006. High-stakes testing and student achievement: Does accountability increase student learning? Education Policy Archives 14(1).


  1. Thank you for sharing of information for me. If you are interested in the services we are offering, I would like to share with you some information about our services, such as: In the wedding invitation in Hanoi (In thiệp cưới tại hà nội), canvas printing workshop in Hanoi cheapest (xưởng in bạt giá rẻ nhất tại hà nội), on-demand printing wedding invitation (in thiệp cưới theo yêu cầu), accessories, kitchen cabinet (phụ kiện tủ bếp), stainless steel kitchen cabinets (tủ kho inox nhà bếp), the price upside down bowl smart (giá úp bát thông minh), door mosquito netting good sort (cửa lưới chống muỗi loại nào tốt), installation of door nets mosquito (lắp đặt cửa lưới chống muỗi), self-rolling mosquito screen door (cửa lưới chống muỗi tự cuốn), mosquito net door (cửa lưới chống muỗi), printed packaging (in bao bì), the following processing in (Gia công sau in), printed T services in Hanoi (dịch vụ in áo tại hà nội), cheap printing company in Ha internal (công ty in giá rẻ tại hà nội), glass staircase (cầu thang kính), iron staircase (cầu thang sắt), stainless steel staircase (cầu thang inox), see feng shui (xem phong thủy), negative feng shui Trach (phong thủy âm trạch), named for the feng shui (phong thủy đặt tên cho con) and repair imac in Hanoi (sửa chữa imac tại hà nội).

  2. I want to thank Julia Navaro for the loan given to me by her loan company NAVARO LOAN COMPANY. Needed a loan to start a my boutique and didn't know how to get a loan until I was introduce to NAVARO LOAN COMPANY by a friend online and she approved my loan of $300,000 with minimum income of $10 and now am a successful woman. If you need any type of loan from any country and of any amount at an interest rate of 2% contact Julia Navaro at and live a happy life.

  3. HOW I GOT MY LOAN (!!!

    My Name is Nicole Marie, I live in USA and life is worth living comfortably for me and my family now and i really have never seen goodness shown to me this much in my life, As i am a struggling mum with two kids and i have been going through a serious problem as my husband encountered a terrible accident last two weeks, and the doctors stated that he needs to undergo a delicate surgery for him to be able to walk again and i could not afford the bills for his surgery then i went to the bank for a loan and they turn me down stating that i have no credit card, from there i ran to my father and he was not able to help me, then when i was browsing through yahoo answers i came across a God fearing man (Mr Martinez Lexie) who provides loans at an affordable interest rate and i have been hearing about so many scams on the Internet mostly Africa, but at this my desperate situation, i had no choice than to give it an attempt due to the fact that the company is from United State of America, and surprisingly it was all like a dream, i received a loan of $82,000.00 USD and i payed for my husband surgery and thank GOD today he is ok and can walk, my family is happy and i said to myself that i will shout to the world the wonders this great and God fearing Man Mr Martinez Lexie did for me and my family; so if anyone is in genuine and serious need of a loan do contact this GOD fearing man via Email: ( ) or through the Company website: OR text: +18168926958 thanks


    God bless you Madam, I will not stop telling the world about your kindness in my life, I am a single mum with kids to look after. My name is Mrs.Rachel Alex, and I am from Singapore Center Drive, Miami Beach, FL . A couple of weeks ago My friend visited me and along our discussion she told me about MRS.IRENE QUERY FINANCE, that they can help me out of my financial situation, I never believed cause I have spend so much money on different loan lenders who did nothing other than running away with my money. I have been in a financial mess for the pass 7 months now,She advised I give it a try so I mailed her and explain all about my financial situation to her, she therefore took me through the loan process and gave me a loan of $180,000.00 at a very low interest rate of 3% and today I am a proud business owner and can now take good care of my kids, If you must contact any firm to get any amount of loan you need with a low interest rate of 3% and better repayment schedule, please contact MRS.IRENE QUERY FINANCE via email{}

  5. You are keeping in touch with some Amazing tips. This article truly helped me a great deal. A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing this blog.
    mosquito net | fly screen repair