Saturday, August 8, 2015

Webinar: Presentation 2

Presentation 2 Krashen
1. Three stages to academic language develoipment
2. Can academic language proficiency be "learned"?
3. Grammar: not evil, just limited, and some suggestions 4. Nontarged comprehensible input
5. The role of writing

THREE STAGES to academic language development: compelling comprehensible input
ONE: Read alouds: overwhelming research support for vocabulary, listening comprehension, interest in books
TWO: free voluntary reading: the bridge between conversational and academic (specialized) language.

THREE: Academic Reading: COMPELLING, SELF-SELECTED, NARROW reading of academic texts of great interest to the reader Reading the main source, not the classroom: (Biber, 2006: classroom discourse is closer to conversational language than to academic language).
Can academic language proficiency be “learned”? The complexity of academic language. the amount of vocabulary. Has English for Academic Purposes ever worked?
GRAMMAR: Not evil, just hard to learn, hard to use
The limits of grammar: condiitions for the use of the Monitor 1. know the rule:
2. time to apply the rule
3. focus on form: think about correctness

Grammar teaching and error correction "work" when these conditions are met (Krashen, 2003: Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use: The Taipei Lectures: Heinemann).
Correction: Works of John Truscott
Two functions of grammar: As Monitor, as language appreciation (linguistics)
Natural Approach (college): as homework

TPRS: pop-up grammar Sheltered: As subject matter
NONTARGTED COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT: Krashen, S. 2013 The Case for Non-Targeted, Comprehensible Input. Journal of Bilingual Education Research & Instruction 15(1): 102-110.
  1. The natural order hypothesis: Should we aim at i+1?
  2. Hypothesis: Given enough comprehensible input, i+1 is covered.
  3. Problems with grammatical syllabus
  1. individualvariation
  2. few learn the grammar well
  3. hardtomakeinputinteresting/compellingandcomprehensible
4. Non-targeted input:
a. individualvariationokifinputcomprehensible
b. our only goal (hard enough): comprehensible/compelling input

Increasing writing does not incurease writing proficiency: Writing is output, not input.
Recent evidence: Sari, R. IJFLT 2013 8(1)
Writing makes you smarter, inspiration the result of writing, not the cause (Boice)
The CP: strategies to use writing to solve problems, keep your place
The classical composing process
I. Revision :
Neil Simon: “mediocre writers write, good writers rewrite.”
Vonnegut: "Novelists have, on the average, about the same IQs as the cosmetic consultants at Bloomingdale's department store. Our power is patience. We have discovered that writing allows even a stupid person to seem halfway intelligent, if only that person will write the same thought over and over again, improving it just a little bit each time. It is a lot like inflating a blimp with a bicycle pump. Anybody can do it. All it takes is time"
II. Flexible Planning: “experienced writers refuse to leave on a trip with a map." Murray, 1984
Good writers plan, but not always formally, are willing to change their plans Overplanning: rigid plan – new ideas are an annoyance

III. Rereading: “I rise at first light and I start by rereading and editing everything I have written to the point I left off” (Hemingway, in Winokur, 1990, p. 247).
Jonathon Kellerman rereads to “segue into new material” (Perry, 1999, p. 178)

IV. Delay Editing: This draft may not be the final one!
Disturbs the flow, coming up with ideas. “Tony” (Perl, 1979): a concern with form “that actually inhibited the development of ideas. In none of his writing sessions did he ever write more than two sentences before he began to edit” (Perl, 1979, p. 324).
Peter Elbow: “Treat grammar as a matter of very late editorial correcting: never think about while you are writing. Pretend you have an editor who will fix everything for you, then don’t hire yourself for this job until the very end” (Elbow, 1973, p. 137).

Additional elements of the composing process
Incubation: "Composition is not enhanced by grim determination" (Frank Smith)
Problem-solving often requires “an interval free from conscious thought” to allow the free working of the subconscious mind (Wallas, 1926,)
Helmholz: After previous investigation, "in all directions," .. " happy ideas come unexpectedly without effort, like an inspiration ... they have never come to me when my mind was fatigued, or when I was at my working table ... They came particularly readily during the slow ascent of wooded hills on a sunny day" (Wallas, p. 91).
Tolle (1999): “All true artists, whether they know it or not, create from a place of no-mind, from inner stillness ... Even the great scientists have reported that their creative breakthroughs came a a time of mental quietude” (p. 20).
Poincare (1924) there must be a "preliminary period of conscious work which also precedes all fruitful unconscious labor.”
Incubation not allowed in school writing.
Daily Regular Writing
Rosellen Brown: writing “is a job, not a hobby ... you have to sit down and work, to schedule your time and stick to it ...” (Winokur, 1999, p. 188). Walker Percy “You've got to sit down and follow a schedule. Unless you do that, punch the time clock - you won't ever do anything” (Murray, 1990, p. 60).
Irving Wallace: vast majority of published authos keep, some semblance of regular daily hours..." (Wallace & Pear, 1971, pp. 518-9).

WHEN is variable: Michael Chabon:10 pm-4 am, Maya Angelou 6:30 am- 12:30, 1:30.
Time keepers: Irving Wallace (Wallace and Pear, 1971) (Balzac, Flaubert, Conrad, Maugham, Huxley, Hemingway).

Page counters: (Updike, West, Bradbury); Word counters: (Haley, Wambaugh) (Murray, 1990)
Source of inspiration is writing:
Stephen King: don’t “wait for the Muse. Your job is to make sure the muse knows where you are going to be every day from nine 'till noon or seven 'till three”

Susan Sontag: "Any productive writer learns that you can't wait for inspiration. That's the recipe for writer's block” (Brodie, 1997, p. 38), Madeleine L’Engle: "Inspiration usually comes during work, rather than before it”
Regular writing vs binging:
Woody Allen, "If you work only three to four hours per day, you become quite productive. It's the steadiness that counts" (Murray, 1990, p. 46).
Boice (1982): junior faculty members who had a “regular, moderate habit of writing,” were compared to those who were “binge” writers (“... more than ninety minutes of intensive, uninterrupted work)” over a six year period. The regular writers produced more than five times as much, and all got tenure or promotion. Only two binge writers got tenure.
The regular writers more relaxed: The binge writers showed three times as many signs of "blocking": When binge writers actually wrote, "they more commonly did nothing or very little (for example, recasting a first sentence or paragraph for an hour; staring at a blank screen).” Binge writers "were three times more likely to be rushing at their work ... three times more likely to put off scheduled writing in favor of "seemingly urgent, no more important activities.”
Why DRW helps: incubation between sessions, warming up
Flaubert: "I have the peculiarity of a camel - I find it difficult to stop once I get started and hard to start after I've been resting” (Murray, 1990) Gore Vidal: "I'm always reluctant to start work, and reluctant to stop."
If Charles Dickens missed a day of writing, "he needed a week of hard slog to get back into the flow" (Hughes, in Plimpton, 1999, p. 247).

Should we test writing?
1. writing form comes from reading
2. writing: quality of ideas = measure of creativity, hard to score 3. most time consuming, most expensive

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