THEORY: A BRIEF REVIEW
S. Krashen www.sdkrashen.com; twitter = skrashen
The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis:
ACQUISITION – subconscious = "picking up" a language - While it is happening, we are not aware that it is happening.
- Once we have acquired something, we are not usually aware that anything has happened; knowledge stored in our brains subconsciously.
The language acquisition device never shuts off.
Acquisition - What the brain does well.
LEARNING – conscious = "rules", "grammar": What we did in school.
Error correction helps learning. When we make a mistake and are corrected, we are supposed to change our conscious version of the rule.
Learning – What the brain does poorly.
The Monitor Hypothesis: Consciously learned language only available as Monitor, or editor - before we say/write something or after.
Conditions (severe) for Monitor use: (1) Know the rule; (2) Think about correctness (focus on form) (3) Time.
Monitor weak but not useless: In editing stage of composing process: e.g. it's/its, lie/lay (language change?)
The Comprehension Hypothesis: We acquire language when we understand messages.
AMAZING FACTS acquisition is (1) Effortless (2) Involuntary
Corollary of the Comprehension Hypothesis: Talking is not Practicing.
1) we acquire language by input, not output: more output does not result in more language acquisition
2) ability to speak: the RESULT of language acquisition
3) correction? (real cure: More comprehensible input. Accuracy emerges.
The Affective Filter Hypothesis: Affective variables prevent input from reaching the “Language Acquisition Device”
Affective variables: motivation, anxiety, self-esteem
FILTER (block) prevents input from reaching Language Acquisition Device.
COMPELLING comprehensible input: so interesting you forget it is in a second language. You are in FLOW.
The case of "Paul": Lao, C. and Krashen, S. 2014. Language acquisition without speaking and without study. Journal of Bilingual Education Research and Instruction 16(1): 215-221.(www.sdkrashen.com, "langage acquisition")